What is the Effect of an Increase in Repo Rate on Individuals and the Economy?

What Is the Effect of an Increase in Repo Rate on Individuals and the Economy

If you wonder how inflation, home loans and car loans are associated with repo rates, then you are at the right place. Let’s find out the effect of the increase and decrease of the repo rate.

The Repo rate is the most substantial rate for the public and the economy. The significant rate set by RBI impacts everything from interest rates on loans to returns on deposits, which is why interest rates on car loans, home loans, and other types of debts go up and down based on the recommendation of the repo rate change. Furthermore, banks adjust savings account and fixed deposit returns based on this benchmark.

The repo rate can result in a spectrum of effects on the overall economy, whether it is an effect on the banking sector, an effect on the individual(average citizen) or some other facet of the Indian economy. The effect of an increase in the repo rate is an increased burden on customers.

A repo rate is a crucial tool of the Indian monetary policy, and it can manage a country’s money supply, inflation levels and liquidity. Also, the repo levels are directly related to banks’ borrowing costs. For instance, the Higher the repo rate, the higher the cost of borrowing for banks and vice-versa.

Repo rate and reverse repo rate

Commercial-based banks, at times of financial crunch, seek short-term funds from the country’s central bank (RBI in the case of India) to tide over the financial trouble. RBI charges interest on the amount lent to the commercial bank for providing these funds. This rate of interest is well known as the repo rate.

The repo rate is technically a repurchase agreement in which commercial banks offer securities such as Treasury Bills to the RBI in exchange for short-term reserves.

The banks also acknowledge repurchasing those securities at a predefined price.

As claimed above, RBI sets the repo rate for short-term lending money to other banks. In reverse repo rate, RBI borrows money at this rate from the banks for a brief term.

In other words, the banks park their surplus funds with the central bank at this rate for one day. The banks receive an interest rate on government securities purchased from the RBI for the duration. The repo rate is always more than the reverse repo rate, and the expanse between the two is RBI’s revenue.

The repo rate or repurchase rate is the rate at which the central bank (RBI) helps banks maintain liquidity and control inflation.

Effects of repo rate on the economy

Influence on the Banking System- Increase in repo rate:

Shifts in the lending rates and deposits offered by banks are the effect of an increase in repo rate. However, it may not have a hasty effect, and banks may analyse their liquidity perspective and cost of funds before extending the deposit rates and lending rates.

After reviewing the cost of funds and liquidity status, banks may begin to pass on their interest rate load to their end customer in the form of high lending rates. That means higher correlated monthly instalments for existing borrowers and higher loan rates for new borrowers.

Conversions affect the home loans and other floating rate loans. Higher lending rates may lead to a deceleration in the banking sector’s lending business, impacting their profitability.

Post analysis of liquidity status, banks may also elevate the rate of deposits proposed to customers to draw more inflow of funds into the banking system.

Reduction in repo rate

Banking is the first sector affected by any change in monetary policies. It is a big help to banks when the Reserve Bank of India curtails the repo rate.

When the Reserve Bank of India determines to reduce the repo rate, loans and advances become reasonable commercial banks as they can avail of short-term credit from the Reserve Bank of India at the reduced rate.

With the accessibility of low-cost credit, banks may even decrease the lending rates to their customers after analysing the liquidity state and the deposit inflows. Banks may offer credit to their clients at a lowered rate.

As bank loans get inexpensive, consumers can spend and borrow extra while using up a lot less on borrowing. Heightened lending business will boost the profitability of the overall banking system.

However, lending rate cuts and deposit rate hikes are hanging on the bank’s liquidity position and demand deposits from customers. One should comprehend the repo rates to handle their finances decently.

Increase in repo rate—Impact on individuals

When the Reserve Bank of India chooses to increase the repo rate, it becomes more expensive for commercial banks to borrow short-term funds from Reserve Bank because of an increase in the repo rate. Boosted repo rate deters the bank from using short-term loans and advances from RBI.

Due to the non-availability of low-cost reserves, banks may boost the lending rate for their customer’s interest load. That means loan becomes more expensive for the general man, and it may automatically decrease consumer purchasing power.

On the other side, banks may prompt suggesting fixed deposits at a raised rate to influence additional inflow of funds. It helps consumers to save more with the increased rates on bank deposits.

Increase in repo rate—Impact on Economy

When the Reserve Bank of India advances repo rates, it becomes more expensive for banks to borrow. In other words, banks will have to spend more interest on their short-term borrowings from the RBI because of an increase in the repo rate. Expensive credit alternative for banks encourages them to boost the lending rate to their end customers.

Expensive bank loans dissuade the borrower from taking loans and credit, and it decreases the money supply in the market and balances the system’s liquidity.

Consumption, production and development also go in loss with the minor money budget. Costly credit hinders financial development and GDP growth even though the inflation rate comes under management.

Hence, the Reserve Bank of India revises the repo rate regularly to strike a balance between economic growth and rising inflation.

Some of the crucial effects of an increase in repo rate on the economy

Credit becomes more expensive for banks as they work at a higher rate on short-term credit from the Reserve Bank of India.

The costlier credit for banks will ultimately lend to the consumers at an advanced rate, which may lead to costly bank loans for customers. As the lending gets expensive, the borrower gets discouraged, and the request for a bank loan reduces.

Reduced borrowing ends up in lower consumption conditions, leading to an economic slowdown that hampers the growth of GDP in the short term. As the consumption demand lowers, every sector’s financial system’s profitability takes a blow as the effect of an increase in repo rate.

Corporate loan customers get discouraged from availing of credit with the increment in repo rate. As the availability of business capital becomes pricey, the production and growth plans take a hit.

A rise in the repo rate decreases the money supply in the monetary system, thereby curbing the inflation rate.

Impact of decreasing repo rate

When the Reserve Bank of India chooses to crop the repo rate, the short-term loans for commercial banks become affordable, and it nudges them to offer consumer credit at a discounted rate. Innumerable times the base lending rate gets lowered with the contraction in the repo rate.

Banks can not lend below the base lending rate to their customers. A decreased base rate extends consumption as people will have more money at their end. Advanced consumption influences the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth.

The reasonable availability of credit stimulates businesses to evolve and expand. Prices of products get lower rates with the availability of low-cost capital. New acquisitions bring adequate employment to the economy.

Some of the critical consequences of a repo rate cut on the economy

  • Consumption Demand: Demand for auto, housing and every sector will rise due to the availability of available bank loans to customers. Economic growth will take an upward trend with every sector growing due to higher consumer demand.
  • Economic activities pick up: With the declining prices, the economy grows at a slower rate. Repo rate cut increases economic stirs and prompts healthy development with a sufficient supply of money in the market.
  • Boost to foreign investments: Bank lending rates get lowered with the cut in repo rate, and lower borrowing rates will enable foreign players to invest in the Indian financial market. It is crucial to note that the repo rate cut is not the only financial measure for economic development.

How do repo rate and reverse repo rate regulate inflation and money supply?

There are some ways in which RBI regulate inflation and money supply in the system using repo rate and reverse repo rate.

  • High rate regime: When the RBI retains the repo rate high, banks tend to borrow less from the central bank due to the high cost of funds. Notably, the reverse repo rate is enormous compared to the repo rate, and it stimulates banks to keep more money with the RBI due to inflated income.
  • Low rate regime: Conversely, when the RBI keeps the repo rate low, banks can borrow more funds from it at a low cost. Similarly, the reverse repo rate is also quick in line with the repo rate. Thus, the banks managed to put limited money into the central bank, which would bring lower profits.

How does a reduction in repo rate impact home loans?

When the RBI reduces the repo rate, banks’ borrowing cost reaches low, and banks are expected to pass on this advantage to consumers eventually. Contrarily, home loan interest rates go up with the RBI bringing an upwards nip in its lending rate.

Incidentally, banks are faster in handing on the increase in rates to the customers, while they usually are quite slow in shrinking their lending rates. So, even though the reduction in the repo rate should demonstrate financial institutions’ interest rates directly, only proliferation recognises fast transmission. RBI often has to encourage banks to pass on the benefits of lowering the rates to borrowers.


The Repo rate, or repurchase rate, is the crucial monetary policy instrument of interest at which the central bank or the RBI lends short-term money to banks to maintain credit availability, inflation, and economic development.

Other policy rates, such as Marginal Standing Facility Rate and reverse repo rate, are often quickly associated with the repo rate of RBI.

A ride in repo rate directs high lending rates to banks by RBI. That is further applicable to the customers. The interest rates of loans in banks are going to boost eventually. And customers have to pay for it. Ultimately, EMIs for personal loans, home loans, and other loans will increase as the effect of an increase in repo rate.


What is the effect of increasing the repo rate and reverse repo rate?

By changing the repo/reverse rate, the RBI can regulate money flow, i.e. liquidity in the economy – extensive liquidity usually brings inflation which can adversely stimulate the economy. At the same time, too little liquidity can usher in an economic slowdown.

What comes about when RBI increases the repo rate?

The RBI increases the repo rate in high inflation to deter banks from borrowing, and it eventually curbs the liquidity in the economy, subsequently restraining high inflation.

How will repo rate-linked loans influence your home loan?

It also means your home loan EMI will boost when the banking regulator brings any shift in its key lending rate.

What is the distinction between the MSF rate and the repo rate?

MSF rate is higher in comparison to the repo rate. The long-term rate (the repo rate is a short-term rate) is at which the central bank (RBI) lends money to financial organisations or other banks.